Ancient Egypt
Elements of its Cultural History

  by Sjef Willockx






Spells 33 and 423 from the Pyramid Texts: Translation and Commentary  (Abstract)

Spell 33 and Spell 423 from the Pyramid Texts display so much common ground that a very close relationship is immediately recognizable but they also exhibit significant differences: enough to warrant different spell numbers. This combination of common roots and diverse developments holds a special promise for examining the work of the ancient Egyptian editors of these texts.

The last sentence of PT 423 ( 767b) is a very difficult one. The key to a proper translation appears to be the last sign. By treating that sign as an ideogram for the god Osiris, the meaning of this otherwise murky sentence suddenly turns lucid.






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